Kindle The Bombing War
By then the German occupation with its harsh reprisals had them caught between a rock and a hard place The story of bombing by Italy is interesting in a what if way The Italian Air Force s xperience in smaller wars such as Spain and Abyssinia had already shown the optimism of Il dominio dell aria to be ill grounded The country s small industrial base prohibited an appropriate volution in aircraft design The persistent but inadeuate bombing of Malta and the airborne assault on Crete might have been replaced with the invasion of the former and the cutting of Allied supply lines in the Mediterranean with severe conseuences for the North African front A similar possibility surfaced during the Blitz on Britain where the Few in actuality met the Many in fairly comfortable numbers and likely in a Hurricane than a Spitfire There was an active discussion of the use of both fighters and bombers in ither the counteroffensive or as part of the fight to keep the island s supply lines open in the Battle of the Atlantic This subject takes me back to the Atlantic charter and could ve used depth The rest of the Blitz story holds few surprises Macromedia Coldfusion Mx: Professional Projects except the preparedness of the British government to use gas in retaliation if necessary This would resurface with the 15th US Air Force in Italy and remains a rather curious restraint in a war where retaliation often served as anxcuse for Encyclop�die Der Rechtswissenschaft escalation The Germans knew the Battle of Britain was a lost causeven before it officially began but kept it up to lull the USSR After 1941 their side of the story plays second fiddle to the Allies but as the victims their development of countermeasures White Christmas-Bloody Christmas even to the infamous Window metal strips invites a comparison with the situation on the British homeland It is never clearly made We do get good capsules of famous raids Hamburg Dresden Sweinfurt and Berlin which got raided less than you d think There is sometimes an overemphasis on the inter Allied disputes over designated targetsspecially towards the Iraq from Manadate Independence end where the liberated countries of Western Europe pass the review The pendulum had irrevocably swung in favour of indiscriminate bombing by late 1942 no matter how vehemently Resistance movements and governments inxile lamented It is almost impossible to pose a moral verdict on the strategic bombing campaign over Europe and Overy thankfully arguments rather than judges Personally I tend to side with Arthur Harris because war has a momentum of its own Won via Goodreads First Reads Giveaway Bombers and Bombed is a very interesting look at both The Cambridge Handbook of Social Problems ends of the Allied bombing campaign in Europe 1940 45 I am a fan of new or little told stories from WWII and thisasy read is near the top The book is very detailed maybe a little too detailed for the beginner history buff You will not be disappointed with BB and I Genres Across the Disciplines enjoyed this book greatly On a side note as I read this book a bulldozer driver in Germany was killed on a construction site by an unexploded allied bomb from WWII on 1 3 2014 apparently this is not uncommon Prior to the Second World War there was a believespecially amongst the air forces of the various belligerents that bombing could determine the outcome of wars curtailing land campaigns The subtitle of this book is Allied Air War Over Europe 1940 1945 and it focuses on the Western allies attempts to test this hypothesis charting the bombing campaigns over Germany in particular its Axis partners and occupied countries such as France and the Netherlands from the perspective of the bombers and those who were bombed To a large degree it is academic in its approach setting out a rather dry and dispassionate account based on the historical archive of documentary Fluttershys Ferocious Friend! evidence presentingvents at a distance and with memos and statistics rather than personalities and Game Night experiences Overy argues that the bombing campaign not only did not achieve its aims but cost in lives and material than it gained in strategic and tactical advances That is not to say that the bombing campaign had noffect it certainly led to much destruction lives lost disruption and some influence on the distribution of resources but rather than collapsing morale it often reinforced resolve and it had little impact on industrial production until near the war s Magic Touch (The Wizards of Venus, end While the book provides a broad overview of the politics and practice of bombing from both Allied and Axis perspective it gives little sense of the key people involved who are rather one dimensional or thexperiences of those undertaking bombing raids or being bombed Moreover it provides very little coverage of the Eastern front and that of the third major allied party Russia I was Grovers Own Alphabet expecting the book to circle round to a wider systemic analysis of theffects and Husband for Real ethics of bombing at the conclusion but that didn t materialise Overall an interesting read concerning the politics andffects of a bombing campaign This was a very detailed and well documented work yet was worded so as to be Root to Stem easy to read It gave a real perspective of the gigantic scope of the bombingffort put forth by the Allies in WWII The book asked the uestions Was the bombing Hard Pushed effective and did it meet its objectives Even though I would agree to somextent with the conclusions I would say they are negated by the fact that approximately 291000 Americans died in the conflict and we didn t start the war The fact that only some 250000 German civilians died as a result of bombings is hardly a drop compared to the 6 million Jews How Philosophy Works exterminated by the Germans or the 13 million Soviets who starved or were killed by Nazis The Germans started this war and killed millions of innocent victims so it is immaterial how many of their civilians were killed in the fog of war The writer was correct is his belief that the bombing did not have the desiredffect on stopping Germany however that is an indication of the lack of accurate bombing methods and Charlie Hernndez the League of Shadows euipment Notice how soon Japan surrendered when only two bombs of deadly accuracy and a horrific method of destruction were used If bombs dropped on Germany had been accurate and deadly it would certainly have made a huge change in the German warffort An amazing book This The Little Book of Comfort exhaustive andxhausting history solely focusing on the bombing war in Europe from its beginnings in 1939 through to 1945 and beyond is a must have and read for anyone interested in the history of World War II The author focuses on the three major air forces in the war the Germans British and Americans and peels away all of the misconceptions forgotten history and heroics that have over the decades built up over the actual facts of the ultimate uselessness that the bombing by all of combatants provided to the outcome of the war Highly recommendedThe Bombing War Europe 1939 1945 is the British Dancing on the Ceiling edition avoid the Americandition titled The Bombers and the Bombed Let me start by pointing out that this review is for the American The Wee Free Men (Discworld, edition from Viking Press which apparently is missing several chapters mainly those concerning German use of bombers against Great Britain in 1940 41On with the review then The Bombers and the Bombed is supposed to be according to the author the most detailed analysis of use of aerial bombing during World War 2 Its u The title and the monumental size of this book somehow suggest a definitive comprehensive history of the strategic bombing campaigns during WWII But that is annormously complex subject with a substantial body of literature already discussing it Among these Overy s book is a worthy contribution but not Kidnapped exceptional It is a thorough study of the politics and strategy of the bloody bombing campaigns of WWII as dry and unemotional as such a study could be But most of this material is not new The greatest merit of The Bombing War is its discussion of Civil Defense that is the various measures the involved states took before and during the war to protect their population infrastructure and industry from the conseuences of thenemy bombs This is a grim subject that I have not seen All Quiet on the Western Front elsewhere described in such detail and it is Overy s major contribution to the topic It gives us a different view of the bombing campaigns as seen from the perspective of the bombed It leads Overy to a valuable insight If the proponents of the bombing ofnemy morale for which to read cities and civilians História do Rei Transparente expected the bombed out people to rise against their governments or at least call for annd to the war they often achieved the opposite Deprived of their homes and possessions suffering the death of friends and relatives the bombed civilians of WWII became only dependent on the state for support and survival In the heavily bombed cities of Germany the Nazi party sought to become the major provider of assistance to the needy and thus its power and grip on the German people were strengthened rather than weakened by Best Mechanic Ever enemy bombing Similar patternsmerged Dinosaur Dinners elsewhere with Italy perhaps being the one significantxceptionIt is a lesson that is still valid and important today for those who seek to In His Blood enforce regime change by bombing or by less bloody meansThis is a valuable contribution to the study of air warfare during WWII It takes time to read but is informative and worth theffort Desert Kings (Deathlands, even if you think that you already know a lot about this topic For those who still believe that the Allied bombing campaigns targeted military targets and civilians suffered only as the result of collateral damage it will be anye opene. Well known attacks on Dresden and Hamburg but also the significance of the firebombing on other fronts including Italy where the crisis was far severe than anything An Officer and a Spy experienced in Germany this is Richard Overy’s finest work yet It is a rich reminder of the terrible military technological andthical issues that relentlessly drove all the war’s participants into an abyss.
The uality of scholarship and analysis is Exposed (Annika Bengtzon, excellent but you should be advised you have to plow through mountains of statistics that belonged in an appendix Also needed majorditing the paragraphs in many cases are intolerably lengthy sometimes in Ooko excess of a page and tend to lose the thread and force of thexplanation The version of the book that I read was the original version published by Allen Lane Penguin as The Bombing War Europe 1939 1945 From what I understand the US version published by Viking as The Bombers and the Bombed Allied Air War Over Europe 1940 1945 as indicated by the title does not include the original version s account of the German bombing campaigns This is a grave weakness in its absence a reader of the lesser book may not fully appreciate the Allies political and military leadership failures as the Allied bombing campaigns developedIt took me a very long time to read this book It is a well written book but the subject matter is grim I started to read this book in September 2014 but I could not force myself to read much of it until making a concerted Naked effort this week which was not coincidently the 70th anniversary of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings and shortly after the 70th anniversary of the Dresden bombings Feb 1945 Coincidentally it was the same week as the passing of the last Dambusters pilot Les MunroThosevents are significant to this book Only with the passing of time and of the participants in the struggle of WW2 was it possible to produce and publish an objective history of the bombing war in Europe 1939 1945 I believe that this book is that objective history and that there are great lessons to be re learned from it Every time I walk past the statue honouring the aircrews of Bomber Command in Green Park I taste something unpleasant in my mouthI can imagine a decent German feeling much the same if Berlin had a major monument to the Eastern Front war dead of the WehrmachtYes both sets of men were courageous and died for the sins of their leaders but both sets of men were complicit in appalling atrocities under orders that specifically targeted civiliansThis remarkable well Shadow Scale (Seraphina, evidenced and well written book is about the use of bombing and itsffects in Europe during the Second World War at least that is its primary purpose It is in fact a book about Claim The Crown evilHalf a million Europeans were murdered from the airither indirectly as part of the prosecution of war or directly as a deliberate strategy of area or political bombing by air power advocatesThe book is dense in places Overy does not put statistics into foot notes but makes sure you have them to hand when you read of this raid or that campaign whether deaths or tonnage of bombsHe does not go into too much detail of Nerds effects justnough for us to be clear what bombing involves because his interests and ours are the policies that led to these horrorsThis is one of those books where the complexity of issues reuires that we do not try an In the Shadow of the Crown (Queens of England, easy summary Overy is fair minded He seeks to understand and not condemn There is nomotion hereThe final conclusions are measured and pointed He also provides a useful coda that suggested that nothing was fundamentally learned from the Bark experienceHe rightly points out that the area bombing of Bomber Harris who must be the verypitome of the banality of On Such a Full Sea evil if you have a soul was of its time and could not be repeatedHe then stops any sigh of relief at this point by pointing out that these maniacs my opinion not his did not need to repeat it because they soon had nuclear weaponry We have been lucky so far Half a million dead over five years could now become 80million Russians in a few hours The strategy of total war would dictate first strike in the forlorn hope of limiting theffect at homeOne should continue to think on this as a bunch of war loons try to convert crises in the Middle East or over local self determination in the Ukraine into confrontations with well armed nuclear powersThe point is that the area strategy was not a general one amongst the combatants but a specifically Anglo American indeed British one based on the thinking of an Italian proto fascist DouhetThe irony of this is not lost on Overy who points out that Allied bombing of Italians while their Government was an ally cost lives than the BlitzOne gets a shock to the system when one discovers just how Hello, Hippo! Goodbye, Bird! evil the British as a war state had become in what was clearly anxistential struggle of constant scalation with no uarter givenLet us start by noting something uncomfortable Although air power advocates promoted independent bombing strategies the general view in the 1930s was that civilian bombing was a horrorNeither the Soviets nor the Americans adopted civilian bombing as a policy directive and surprise it was Hitler who attempted to outlaw it and chemical and gas weapons at the beginning of the conflictOf course this does not gainsay Hitler s villainy against first the Jews and the mentally disabled and then anything that got in his way of a civilian nature in the East or in terms of reprisalsBut facts are facts And probably because he still had a residual notion that the West Europeans were a basically civilised people Hitler seems to have thought it uncivilised to bomb people in warThere is as well multiple room for misunderstandings sometimes wilful in international relations with deeply unpleasant political warfare operatives muddying the truth at very opportunityOvery somewhat Mastered (The Enforcers, embarrassingly places Guernica Warsaw and Rotterdam in their military context and draws the critical line between what we call collateral damage and deliberate terrorThis is central because we need to understand that the British not only had a strategy of terror the only nation to do so but with the Americans banked up gas bombs in Italy ready to use in the last daysBiological weapons may have been in their infancy but it seems from Overy s coda that the next total war contemplated by the air power loons included advocacy of bacteriological warfare to retain assetsSo what is going on here Certainly Churchill was troubled by the strategy of terror though unafraid to use any resource to meet politicalnds As we will note we can still see his pointSimilarly not only the Germans and the Soviets but also the Americans may have been ruthless though happily held to the notion of tactical use of air power where civilians were unfortunate collateral damageThe secret of Man, Son of Man evil seems to lie in its true source the corporate mentality The RAF was a new arm of state force and competed for budgets and resources It positioned itself as the futureIts chief Bomber Harris somewhere ceased to be a human being and became the pure will of his force He had done a common thing lost himself in the task and ceased to be than the taskEdgerton has written persuasively that last century air power was associated with the technological right and he has pointed out the ideology underpinning Liberal MilitarismOvery does not go down this route but we should remind ourselves that the driver for techno war was the protection of one s own people by mustering massive power targeted at the population of the other This reversion to a Mesopotamian attitude to the cities of yournemy also held a sub text of fear that democracy actually the hold of the liberal Alter Ego elite could not survive another general call upThe solution tanks on the front and planes in the sky neatly converged with the institutional aspirations of the RAF to anual or dominant role in war strategySince fighters and fighter bombers by definition were always going to be ancillary to armies fighting blow by blow across country and naval forces defending trade routes this meant bombingThe justification of bombing however was not asy Aiming was poor air crew losses were high and the uipment was very Uncommon Wisdom expensive To be than ancillary reuired a result What these callous men offered was one or both of two possibilities one taken up reasonably by the Americans and the other fanatically by Bomber HarrisThe first was to claim that bombing raids directed at aeroengine works transportation and oil facilities and so on could degrade theconomy of the other side so that his war capacity would failNaturally given the weakness of bomb aiming Unseen City euipment and the constant pressure on air crews of fear this meant serious collateral damage to the civilian populationNeedless to say this is what happened not only in the Blitz which was always military in purpose in terms ofconomic warfare but also in many of the major raids on Germany and all those in allied statesOvery plausibly demonstrates that this sort of airpower was far less Art effective than the bombers claimed but he and we can give the men of the time the benefit of the doubt hereThe bombers in these cases seem to have killed a lot of people including allied citizens to the increasing frustration of the resistance but there was at least a theoretical case for actionIt could be reasonable in anscalating God Is in the Crowd existential crisis to accept this massive collateral damage if it brought the hell to a fasternd this is the dark justification of course for HiroshimaThis sort of bombing is just just on the right side of morality for most people we say again that which reasonably might be considered to be the lesser Attracting Songbirds to Your Backyard evil in anxistential struggleStrategic area bombing of civilians to inspire terror in the dubious and unevidenced belief that this might cau. The ultimate history of the Allied bombing campaigns in World War II Technology shapes the nature of all wars and the Second World War hinged on a most unpredictable weapon the bomb Day and night Britain and the United States unleashed massive fleets of bombers to kill and terrorize occupied Europe destroying its cities The grisly conseuences call into uestion how “moral?.
Se panic and bring down a regime is another kettle of fish howeverThere are cases where regimes were brought down by terror bombing Italy seems to be an The Matriarchs (The Family example but nearly all countries appear to have adapted andven seem to have seen the regime strengthenedThe fact of bombing and disruption Notes for the Everlost exposed weak and poor regimes like Mussolini s but itnabled a narrative of resistance and a politically led popular organisation to When I Moan (Vassi and Seri 1: Russian Stepbrother Romance) emergelsewhereJust as general tactical asset bombing oddly tended to increase production through reorganisation substitution and determination so area bombing tended to strengthen political legitimacyIn the first case it might be very reasonable for strategists not to have understood that this would be the case but in the second we are faced by two new factorsThe Blitz itself should have provided sufficient No Biggy! evidence that regimes strengthened onxistential threat while what we have here is something different the deliberate targeting of workersAh I seem to have slipped into the unforgivable here the values driven business of morality The point is that Bomber Harris was no different from Himmler in this the destruction of persons deliberately because of their nature in this case as German workers in Himmler s as JewsThe argument that the Jews were innocent and the German workers were guilty is specious To Nazis the Jews were as guilty as hell as origins of the war yes absurd but believed culturallyGerman workers many of whom voted social democratically in the 1932 and previous lections and who were led no less than workers anywhere by malign lites were suffering here from collective punishmentThe deliberate firestorming of Hamburg and other cities was a war crime that the Allies knew to be so when they decided not to prosecute the Nazis at Nuremburg for their bombing atrocitiesThe most notorious case Dresden ironically probably falls into the milder category of tactical warfare bombing in support of the Soviet push to the East Overy is good at revising our preconceptionsThe lessons of all this are largely academic on the old mafia saying that that was then and this is now The conditions were peculiar and unrepeatable new atrocities Attracting Birds to Your Backyard entirely are for our timeHowever we can draw some lessons about the human condition about the blind and unaccountable nature of institutional forms operating in unevidenced ways and doing bad things under unrestrained leadersTo be fair Churchill was a man under severe pressure to whom bombing remained a tool at hand and a sideshow and though committed absolutely to success he was neither stupid nor psychopathicWhat is worrying is that under conditions ofxistential crisis power to do great Deep Listening evil can be delegated soasily This story raises very uncomfortable thoughts about other war leadersAnd not just Stalin and Hitler but Cameron and Obama The post war Presidents for Bird-by-Bird Gardening example appear to have had some reasonable grip over their forces through acceptance of their authority Are we so sure nowOne uestion is what happens when the fuhrerprinzip sends down the line vague generalities alongside instructions that can be interpreted brutally because they were stated brutally the HitlerStalin modelBut another uestion is what happens when a Leader is not working on full information and makes false or bad judgements on the claims of the institutional pressure groups who claim to serve himThere are signs on several occasions in this story that Bomber Command lost the ability to do two things under Bomber Harris think beyond the interests of itself and have reasonable moral boundariesThe British were far from alone the Soviets were restrained only because they were fighting a different sort of war and the Americans soon descended into hell themselves with the Tokyo firebombingBut bombing itself was overgged as tool strategic bombing in the battlefield could lead to the friendly fire The Works of Saint Augustine errors that we saw in Ira and Afghanistan as well and often did harm than goodIt may givenxistential struggle and acceptance of the just war ho hum have had some important function in degrading the flow of materiel to the Unbuttoning the CEO (The Suits Undone enemy front and redirecting productionWhat strikes me as unconscionablespecially with political motives of pure populist revenge is to continue with a campaign of total war against civilians long after it is clear that it is just murderAlmost My Teacher Is a Robot every civilian death could be justified by some rationalxplanation based on the struggle for Supper Club existence by thend but by that time Moanas New Friend (Disney Moana) everyone has lost the moral plot The great lesson of all this is that war has its own remorseless logic in which as Overy wisely notes political conditionsventually block the chance to do the right thingHowever you can make up your own mind Overy is detached and clinical The facts are all there in his book I urge you to read it and ask where you think the boundaries of death dealing should lie It delivers what it promises bombing throughout Europe A good two thirds is still devoted to the Blitz over England Germany Italy benefits most of Overy s pan European ambition while Western Europe or less gets attention in descending order of damage The section on Eastern Europe felt too short I am not yet ualified to judge the strategical bombing of the Soviet Union in the context of Barbarossa It s supposedly seldom separated from the tactical air war in the East The conclusion and Professional Capital epilogue form anxcellent synopsis of the book s main themes but they are shining through the facts throughout so that the reader has a good sense of structure The popular image of non stop swarms of untouchable airplanes soaring menacingly over burning cities is thoroughly debunked It never left the realm of 1930 s SF or war games Bombers were Seven Dwarfs Find a House (Disney Classic) envisioned to wreck utter an instant devastation on an almost nuclear scale and not seldom through gas or biological agents Society s morale wasxpected to plummet as fast as its architecture helpless in the face of a bomber that always got through Without this lengthy Berlioz, Vol. 2 exposition it is impossible to grasp the mentality of decision making throughout 1940 1945 Thexisting bomber technology was simply incapable of delivering results in accordance with pre war The Middle Sin (Cleo North expectations The impact on thenemy war The Mediterranean Millionaires Mistress economy was limitedspecially once dispersal programs gave the attacker a myriad of targets to choose from The chief benefit was forcing the other side to invest in massive AA defense manned by a mass of hands sorely missed in factories or at the front In relation to this the necessary air supremacy of the bomber fleet in Midnight Fantasies enemy airspace was very hard to assert without anxpansion of the fighter arm resulting in a large scale aerial duel that was not foreseen in the interbellum Aditionally the range of fighter Men of Steele Bundle escorts virtually determined the range of the bomber offensive The progress made in aircraft construction on this point is perhaps the best measurement of how the psychological impact of bombing spread until it affectedntire countries Finally the unity of the people was strengthened rather than weakened in the face of aerial attack since the current powers that be were the main source of rescue and assistance Ironically pre war fears had stimulated initiatives of nationwide civil defense Britain comes off best among the democracies while there was a direct correlation among the dictatorships between the degree of totalitarian mobilization and preparedness This is best illustrated by looking at the sturdiness of the public andor private bomb shelters and their ffect on morale It scales down the story to the human level better than casualty statistics can Plus both the UK and the USA spent half the war building up their bomber force It is an arm that demands a lot of industrial resources uses spacious infrastructure reuires a lot of maintenance manpower No war in history has nough to go around The imminent invasion in Normandy over threatened to direct the whole air force to tactical support In the The Millionaires Waitress Wife (The Brubaker Brides, end it helped to blur the distinction between the two levels It also obscured at the time an important fact Stalin s much desired Second Front had been inxistence since 1942 thanks to the bombers that vided for the strength of the Eastern Front Inaccuracy continued to plague all air forces until the nd of the war in spite of considerable technological advancement in the field of night radar No matter how strict the assigning of targets of proven military value collatoral damage in civilian residential areas was the inevitable conseuence In a way the decimation of the nemy labour force was counted as a compensation but the population was never an official prime target of bombing for neither side The Allies did step up the numbers by perfecting the mix of high The Millionaires Miracle explosive incendiary to create firestorms in German cities whose medieval centers were notoriously flammable One of the neat details in the book is the studies undertaken by amongst others themigrated founder of the Bauhaus movement to determine which ordnance combination would work best on Germany and Italy respectivelyIn a weird way reality vindicated the critics of Douhet his prophesized collapse of national spirit only came true with Italians who were prone to crack asily While the British Blitz spirit is xaggerated in the mythology of WWII Italian morale did plummet faster In their defense bombing on the peninsula didn t get heavy until after the landings at Anzio the overthrow of Mussolini. ?? a war the Allies fought The Bombers and the Bombed radically overhauls our understanding of World War II It pairs the story of the civilian front line in the Allied air war alongside the political context that shaped their strategic bombing campaigns Mine Under the Mistletoe examining the responses to bombing and being bombed with renewed clarity The first book toxamine seriously not only the.
Richard Overy ì 9 Read
Kindle The Bombing War
Richard James Overy is a British historian who has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third ReichEducated at Caius College Cambridge and awarded a research fellowship at Churchill College Professor Overy taught history at Cambridge from 1972 to 1979 as a fellow of ueens' College and from 1976 as a university assistant lecturer In 1980 he moved to King's College Lond